Moscow Castles

Enceinte

Introduction

The first fortification of the Russian capital was the Kremlin. At the end of 15th century it got contemporary masonry walls and during the following centuries it had overgrown with defensive lines: Kitay-gorod in the early 16th century, Bely Gorod at the end of 16th century and became one of the most fortified cities in Europe of that time. But none of them could not protect citizens from sudden attacks of nomad hordes.

All Moscow Castles on Google Maps
All Moscow Castles on Google Maps

Castles with curtain wall

Arranged in order of foundation.

1. Moscow Kremlin

This site is out of scope of the article, because there is too much information about it. Nevertheless, it can not be not mentioned. The contemporary Kremlin walls with «swallowtail» merlons were built by Italian architects (Antonio Gilardi, Marco Ruffo and Pietro Antonio Solari) in 1485–1516.

View of the Kremlin from Vasilevsky Descent
1. View of the Kremlin from Vasilevsky Descent

2. Kitay-gorod Wall

It was an additional defensive line around the Kremlin built from 1534 to 1539 and originally featured 13 towers and six gates. Unfortunately, the wall was demolished in the 1930’s and only two curtains remained.

2.1. Kitaygorodskiy Proyezd, 2
2.2. Tretyakovsky Proyezd, 1/4
2.3. Theatre Square, 5

3. Danilov Monastery

Founded in 1282, existing defensive walls were built in the middle 17th century. Now it is walled and has seven towers.

3. Ulitsa Danilovskiy Val, 22

4. Vysokopetrovsky Monastery

Founded before 1330, now it remained only a part of the initial defensive wall (in Krapivenskiy Pereulok) built in the late 17th century.

4. Petrovka Ulitsa, 28

5. Andronikov Monastery

Founded in 1357, existing defensive walls were built in the middle of the 17th century, now walled as an irregular pentagon and has five towers.

5. Andronyevskaya Ploshchad, 10

6. Simonov Monastery

Founded in 1370, existing defensive walls were built in the late 16th or early 17th century, three towers and curtains between them preserved to date.

6. Vostochnaya Ulitsa, 4

7. Novospassky Monastery

Founded in 1490, existing defense walls were built in the late 16th century, now walled as an irregular quadrangle and has five towers.

7. Krestyanskaya Ploshchad, 10

8. Novodevichy Convent

Founded in 1490, existing defensive walls were built in the late 16th century, now it walled as an irregular rectangle and has 12 towers.

8. Novodevichy Passage, 1

9. Donskoy Monastery

Founded in 1591, existing defensive walls were built in 1686–1711, now walled and has 12 towers.

9. Ulitsa Donskaya, 1/3

Non-defensive walls

10. Zachatyevsky Convent

Founded in 1360, the existing brick fence was built in 1696, now walled.

10. 1-y Zachatyevskiy Pereulok, 2

11. Rozhdestvensky Convent

Founded in 1386, the existing brick fence was built in the 18th century, now is partly walled.

11. Ulitsa Rozhdestvenka, 20/8

12. Ivanovsky Convent

Founded in the 15th century, the existing brick fence was built in 1861–1878 in Romanticism Style.

12. Malyy Ivanovskiy Pereulok, 2

13. Pokrovsky Monastery

Founded in 1635, the existing brick fence was built in the 19th century, now walled as a rectangle and has six non-defensive towers.

13. Taganskaya Ulitsa, 58

Manor houses

14. Kolomenskoye

Founded presumably in 1532, existing brick fences supposedly were built in the late 17th century, now partly remained.

14. Andropova Avenue, 39

15. Krutitsy Metochion

Founded in 1667, unfortified.

15. Krutitskaya Ulitsa, 17

16. Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo

From 1664 the area belonged to the noble family of the Streshnevs. A stone fence of red brick with massive towers in the Russian Revival style was built around the estate in 1889–1890.

Only a corner tower and the main entrance opposite the Volokolamskoe highway are worth seeing.
16. Volokolamskoye shosse, 52

17. Tsaritsyno Palace

Founded in 1776 by the order of Catherine the Great, unfortified. A number of pavilions, orangeries, arbours, artificial grottos, bridges and gates were constructed in the late 18th century by Bazhenov and Kazakov.

17. Dolskaya St., 1

Contemporary imitations

18. Nikolo-Perervinsky Monastery

Founded in 1623, the existing brick fence was built in 1908 — the same year as the main church was erected in Russian-Byzantine style.

16. Shosseynaya Ulitsa, 82

19. Sretensky Monastery

Founded in 1397, the existing brick fence was built in the 1990’s.

17. Ulitsa Bolshaya Lubyanka, 19

20. Athonite Metochion

Founded in 1595 as a church, the existing brick fence with the gates were built in 1996. The entrance is flanked by tower-like chapels.

18. Goncharnaya Ulitsa, 6.

21. Izmaylovo Kremlin

Built in 1996–2007 on the site of Izmaylovo Vernissage.

19. Izmaylovskoye Shosse, 73

Excavations

22. Bely Gorod Wall

The defensive wall of Bely Gorod (White City) was erected in 1585–1593 and consists of 28 towers and 11 gates.

20. The only remaining basement of that wall is displayed at the Khokhlovskaya square

--

--

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Andrey Enin

Andrey Enin

199 Followers

Quality assurance engineer: I test complex web applications and APIs, and do automation testing.